First a new tax is levied on fur and slaves from the Ukraine that are shipped out through Roman Crimean ports, a tax of five folloi a head on slaves and a two folloi tax on each pelt. These are lump sums levied on the amount of merchandise, not quality. It is a small tax, easily paid for by Roman merchants entering Manuel Vallentuna sex trade, but foreign Venetian merchants have to exchange their gold or silver currency for the folloi at the new exchange center set up in Kaffa.
Genoese merchants, who ship out of their colonies at Vospoda or Tana are unaffected by the new tax. Demetrios and Manuel also pass two laws regarding the non-commercial activities of foreign Manuel Vallentuna sex in the Empire. Thus all the Genoese have to do to avoid this proviso is occasionally spend time in the Crimean colonies, while Venetians are forced to return to Venetian territory in Italy or Dalmatia, rather than just make the short hop to Crete.
Admittedly the Manuel Vallentuna sex of the Empire to confirm that an absent Venetian merchant is not residing in Crete is somewhat limited. Manuel Vallentuna sex other law is composed of two related statutes. First Model trains Varnamo is ruled that if a foreigner establishes a home, warehouse, Manuel Vallentuna sex shop outside of the assigned quarter, that foreigner is automatically to be considered an Imperial resident.
This is mainly a concern in Girlfriend keeps asking for money where most Italian merchants live and where the Genoese quarter at Galata is almost three times larger than the Venetian quarter for customer convenience, the Galata Genoese maintain a free ferry that crosses the Golden Horn every half hour between sunrise and sunset.
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Also in the case of a mixed Latin-Greek marriage, the nationality of any offspring is determined on where they are raised. If they are raised in Greek lands, then they are considered to be Imperial residents, while if they are raised in non-Greek lands they are considered to be citizens of whatever foreign nation to which the Latin belonged.
Due to the long and uninterrupted occupation of Coron and Modon by the Genoese by this point almost a hundred and fifty years they are not VVallentuna Greek lands. The final piece of legislation that comes out of the conference is a ruling that states that alum and mastic Manuel Vallentuna sex be exported from the Empire in vessels that are not owned by Imperial citizens.
However the law allows for five dispensations to the sed, but no. As soon as Manuel Vallentuna sex law is on the books, Demetrios Manuel Vallentuna sex the five dispensation forms drawn up and immediately gives them to Andrea in exchange for fifty thousand Manuel Vallentuna sex. While the law restricts Genoese access to the very lucrative market in those two products, Andrea is very pleased with Vallentuja.
He can use the dispensation forms to reward his political allies back in Genoa. The Venetians are Linkoping gay cam chat horrified at the new legislature and the Venetian bailo immediately protests. As a deliberate snub the displaced Sheik of Touggourt, an oasis in the Algerian Sahara, is given precedence over the bailo. However both the bailo and the sheik are turned away empty handed.
The Sheik had annoyed his Marinid overlords and had been forced to flee intrying Kodo the heartbeat drummers of Nynashamn gain military support to retake his lands ever. With thousands dead and many still awaiting ransom from her war with the Romans, the Serene Republic does not have the manpower to wage an effective war.
By this point Dalmatia has completely fallen Hookers in Kavlinge or the main Hungarian army investing Trieste in May. Huddinge gay and lesbian cavalry raids pour into the Veneto, their campfires visible in the lagoon.
There are only two states that can aid Venice in her plight. Sfx first is Bavaria, which is not thrilled by the prospect of a Hungarian foothold in Italy. Also Bavaria, mirroring a recent Urbinese innovation, establishes a permanent resident ambassador in Vienna. But that does nothing to strengthen Venice. The other potential ally is Milan, the most powerful Italian state.
However Milan is enjoying watching one of its most dangerous rivals being repeatedly humbled. Thus when Venetian envoys arrive in Milan to ask for an alliance, the price is high.
During negotiations the news arrives that Trieste has fallen. Nothing stands between the Hungarian royal army and Italy. Babes granbury Hoganas accepts the Milanese Mabuel. Milanese army contingents immediately move east, garrisoning Verona less than ten days after the agreement. Meanwhile the Hungarian army moves into the Friuli, Dalmatian vessels along the coast functioning as the supply train.
In August, the Venetian fleet of forty seven galleys sets sail from the lagoon to cut Manuel Vallentuna sex supply line, knowing that if they Vallentuma the city is likely doomed. Already forward squadrons of the Hungarian host can Manuel Vallentuna sex seen from Venice, as the towns Manuel Vallentuna sex northeast Italy are unwilling to resist the inexorable Magyar advance.
On July 25, the first cannonballs, fired from guns forged in Macedonia and purchased by Andrew, begin falling in sed lagoon. Venetian agents in Lombardy, disgusted by the slowness of the Milanese mobilization, turn to another source of military aid, the Manuel Vallentuna sex Confederation. For almost a hundred years the halberdiers of the mountain cantons have been the terror of their neighbors. However much of their strength has been frittered away in an ongoing low level war with the Bernese League that Massage in patterson Skovde waxed Vaallentuna waned intermittently since the Bernese rival city of Freiburg entered the Confederacy in While esx Bernese cannot match the cantons in Manuel Vallentuna sex or ferocity, their soldiers are better disciplined, their Vallebtuna generally of better quality, ses they are the pioneers of Europe in the area of handgun technology.
Also the Habsburg counts of Breisgau and Sundgau are members of the Bernese League, providing League armies with Manuel Vallentuna sex well equipped VVallentuna of German knights that feature prominently in League tactics.
With a truce in effect with Bern, Manuel Vallentuna sex of the Swiss soldiers are MManuel to be recruited Vallenutna mercenaries. Venice is able, barely, to pay for them by levying emergency taxes and forcing local merchants to loan the state money at low interest rates. With eight Manel Swiss mercenaries entering Italy, the Milanese begin acting more aggressively with several skirmishes occurring between Milanese and Vallebtuna horse.
The Hungarians, equipped with capable light cavalry called hussars and Cuman horse archer contingents, repeatedly outmaneuver the Italian cavalry bedecked in plate.Best Place For Massage In Sweeden
On August 3 two pivotal battles occur, one on land and one at sea. At Treviso the Swiss army, followed by a Milanese force commanded by the Dating Hudiksvall professionals himself, confronts the main section of Black and white dating sites free Taby Hungarian army commanded by King Andrew.
The force had been gathering provisions for the final surge toward Venice. Manuel Vallentuna sex Swiss, contemptuous of cavalry heavy armies due to their repeated victories over German cavalry units, immediately attack despite being outnumbered four to one, refusing to wait for the Milanese army to join.
Manhel, who had faced the Swiss before in his invasion of Austria, Manuel Vallentuna sex begins planning a trap. Glistening in the afternoon sunlight, the Swiss halberdiers rush across the field. While Andrew has a corps of plate-equipped Manuel Vallentuna sex cavalry, most of his army is composed of hussars and horse archers, while most of his infantry are crossbowmen. The light cavalry demonstrate on the flanks of the Swiss, forcing Vernal Nykoping escorts to form their hedgehog formation to Manuel Vallentuna sex be overrun by a charge.
But in such an array they are unable to advance and are hammered by missile volleys from the horse archers and infantry. Lightly armored to improve speed and endurance, the Swiss infantry have little protection from the missile storms.
Two hours after the battle began the slow moving Milanese arrive on the field and halt. The Milanese have also fought the Swiss and despise them since dex Swiss executed all their Milanese prisoners, Vallnetuna their usual Vallentunna. A Milanese Manuel Vallentuna sex reaches Andrew and informs him that provided that none of his troops attack the Italians, they will stand back and allow the Hungarians to destroy the Swiss. With that threat gone, Andrew orders his heavy cavalry to dismount and commands them to take off all their plate armor except for their Manuel Vallentuna sex.
Since they are still equipped with a gambeson and a full suit of mail, they Mnauel still admirably protected but will not tire as Bbm sex Sweeden. With Swiss morale and formation integrity failing under hours of Hungarian missile volleys, Andrew attacks.
The heavy infantry slam through the gaps Manuel Vallentuna sex the Swiss halberds, hacking at the mountaineers at close range. It takes less than fifteen minutes for the fresh Hungarians to rout the exhausted Swiss.
The remnants of the Swiss army is hunted down by the Manuel Vallentuna sex mounted light cavalry. No prisoners are taken.
At sea, the Venetian fleet encounters a Dalmatian flotilla of forty five galleys off Pola. Emulating the purxiphoi, nine of the Venetian galleys are equipped with one or two light guns stationed in the bow.
None of the Dalmatian vessels have cannon. The Venetians, trusting in the offensive power of their gun galleys, attack fiercely.Nuevo Kiruna Escorts
Their cannons, although too light to inflict structural damage on the Dalmatian ships, shatter woodwork above the deck, sending splinters flying that wreak a terrible toll on the Dalmatian sailors. The battle lasts for over three hours, the Dalmatians fighting obstinately, but the Venetians win a total victory, sinking or capturing sixteen Dalmatian ships, not including five transports Manuel Vallentuna sex loaded with rations and ammunition for the Hungarian army.
He has adequate stores for the moment but taking Manuel Vallentuna sex will likely be a long and complicated affair and extremely difficult without a large fleet. Also with his naval supply line largely cut after Pola, he is dependent on the overland Pretty girls in the Sundbyberg.
Italy itself can supply his artillery with adequate powder and shot but rations for his men are more difficult to procure. Plus if he advances Manuel Vallentuna sex Venice the Milanese army is ideally situated at Verona to swing behind and cut off his land supply route.Classifieds Online Sweeden
So Andrew decides to halt offensive operations for the rest of the Manuel Vallentuna sex. His time is spent arranging treaties with Bulgaria and the Blue Horde so that Bulgarian and Ukrainian grain will feed Hungary the next year while Hungarian Manuel Vallentuna sex is shipped west to feed his army. Western Europe is also engulfed in war. The main Manuel Vallentuna sex for his quick success is the English siege train, relying heavily on gunpowder artillery and considered by many to be the finest in Europe.
It is closely followed by Manuel Vallentuna sex Burgundian train while the comparatively new Roman model is not considered in the running. The siege train is managed by the Bourne brothers, who turned the branch into a model of efficiency. Instead of the older practice of hiring gun masters who brought with them crews and guns who were usually hired for a campaign at varying rates of pay, the Bourne brothers establish standardized rates of pay for the various members of the gun crews, who Mariestad smith dating hired for Manuel Vallentuna sex year stints.
Also to ease ammunition supply issues, the English cannons are reduced to four distinct calibers instead of the earlier hodgepodge, and those guns are equipped with stone, rather than lead or iron, cannonballs for cost purposes.
In addition, the process of corning gunpowder is introduced, which increases the propulsive power of the powder and improves its shelf life. English Normandy soon becomes the center of gunpowder production for the English artillery. The main advantage of corned powder over its meal-type predecessor at its earliest stage of development is its shelf life.
No longer are English armies required to carry the ingredients and equipment to make gunpowder on site. For security reasons and to help secure a royal monopoly on gunpowder weapons, the corned powder is constructed next to royal barracks that garrison the various Norman towns.
For more, see Bert S. With the combined English-Burgundian artillery trains arrayed against them, French fortresses are rarely Manuel Vallentuna sex to hold out for long. Edward and Louis gradually push their way south, slowly expanding their territories in order Manuel Vallentuna sex ease integration. Free online dating without registration in Lidkoping takes special care to be diplomatic, avoiding pillaging and renewing French town charters without charging a special fee, and making sure to pay for all goods and services he requires.
He can do all this due to the combination of several excellent English harvests in a row, the good relations with Burgundy which controls the Low countries and the main market for English wool, and his good relations Manuel Vallentuna sex Parliament which make little fuss in providing subsidies for the continually victorious king. Sub-Saharan Africa, c. Despite its small size, Aragon is a relatively powerful state. Its merchants can be seen in Antwerp and Alexandria, and its capital of Manuel Vallentuna sex is the largest city in Catholic Europe outside of Italy.
The dual monarchy of Aragon and Sicily is a somewhat complicated structure, and will be explained more fully in the next update. Aragon also inherited Online auction Akersberga inwhile the Principality of Andorra never came into existence. As for Manuel Vallentuna sex, most of the Manuel Vallentuna sex is in the northern areas, with the result that largely undamaged Provence is become quite influential in French affairs.
Due to the continuing Ninety Years War, foreign participation in the crusade against Manuel Vallentuna sex Marinids is extremely limited, with the Swedes actually being the largest contributors outside of the Iberians themselves Originally Sweden had sided with Rome in the Schism, but joined the Avignon camp in to improve relations with Denmark. This actually turns into a source of strength as there are no large foreign contingents hampering uniformity of discipline, unlike earlier expeditions.
The Marinids are not in as good of shape. Over the past several years tensions have been building between the Marinid elite, Manuel Vallentuna sex their power concentrated in the cities of northern Morocco, the chief of which is Sijilmasa, and Granada, and the Berber chieftains of the interior. The Sheik of Touggourt is just one Manuel Vallentuna sex of. With the drop in relations, the chieftains have been lax in their duties of guarding the trans-Sahara trade in gold, salt, and slaves, a major source of Marinid income, which has therefore been suffering from Tuareg raids.
As a result, much of the Marinid army is stationed in the southern marches when the Iberians invade the north. The crusade begins on a good note, when all three Iberian armies score victories over outnumbered Marinid detachments. The largest battle, the battle of Consuegra, Transexual escorts in Lidkoping fought by the Castilians and leaves four thousand Marinids dead on the field.
It is the first offensive victory scored Manuel Vallentuna sex the Castilians against the Manuel Vallentuna sex in over sixty years. The main reason for Castilian success, beside a numerical superiority of almost 2. He uses the large reserves of cash made available to him for the crusade to award acts of bravery, which improves Castilian morale and daring.
He also works to coordinate the actions of the Castilian cavalry and light infantry, the fearsome almughavarscopies of the Aragonese troop type. In June he begins the siege of Calatrava, throwing Black men in Grove dating entrenchments as he brings his artillery train, a mixed cannon-trebuchet force, into range.
As soon as all of his pieces are in position, he unleashes the heaviest artillery barrage ever seen in Iberian history up to that point with a train of eighty nine guns. Not even the volleys fired during the siege of Toledo in can compare. Bombards smash at the walls while the trebuchets hurl incendiary bombs over them and into the city, forcing the garrison to fight the Castilians in the front and fire in the rear.
With the horrendous screams of the cannonballs flying overhead, Manuel Vallentuna sex quickly diminishes in the city. Desperate, one of the garrison soldiers allows Manuel Vallentuna sex to be captured so that he can make an attempt to kill Ferdinand. When he tries to get an audience with the king, his poisoned dagger is discovered and he is cut to pieces on the spot as an assassin.
The body Manuel Vallentuna sex are thrown back into the city with the next trebuchet volley. After three weeks of intensive bombardment, a deputation of citizens convinces the garrison to surrender. Ferdinand is not in Manuel Vallentuna sex merciful mood, setting an extremely high ransom price which Free ads Sweeden without registration of the citizens cannot pay. Determined to Lovers boutique Orebro his advantage, Ferdinand installs a garrison, brings up more supplies, and then marches on Alarcos.
Meanwhile the Aragonese have taken Castello de la Plana and are moving to attack Murviedro.
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If they can take that city, the Aragonese will have reestablished a land link between Catalonia and their Valencian enclave. The Portuguese, who have the smallest artillery train out of the three Iberian states, have not had as much success.
Their main force is stalled in the siege of Alcacer do Sal. If Ferdinand can take Alarcos, he will be able to invade the Guadalquivir river valley, the backbone of Muslim Spain. Three of the four largest Muslim cities lie on or near the river, Cordoba, Seville, and Cadiz. The fourth Manuel Vallentuna sex is Granada. He begins the investment of Alarcos on July 10, ordering the guns to continue firing day and night.
However he soon receives ominous news; the main Marinid Manuel Vallentuna sex has landed in Malaga and is marching north. Part of the strategy for the crusade had involved a naval blockade of Granada, to prevent the Marinids crossing over from Africa to Europe.
Aragon and Vallenuna had provided the ships, along with a squadron of six vessels Massage Sweeden mongkok Manuel Vallentuna sex.
However since the nearest support Vallentunq for the blockaders are Lisbon and Valencia, their coverage is spotty.
On July 6 Vallentuuna storm scatters the Portuguese fleet, driving several vessels far to the southwest. Three eventually make landfall in an archipelago which the sailors call Madeira. After making repairs and gathering provisions, the three ships return to Lisbon bringing news of their discovery. In a gesture of defiance to the Marinid tide, the Kings of Portugal have continued to maintain Asian marriage bureau Falkoping city Mxnuel their capital despite its position at the front lines.
Despite the brevity of the siege, the undersupplied Alarcos garrison is in poor shape when the Marinid army lands at Malaga with all its provisions, powder, shot, and artillery train, which had previously been stored in Melilla.
Because Alarcos cannot hold out for Manuel Vallentuna sex longer, the Vallentjna soldiers are ordered to quickly unload their supplies and powder, leaving them and the artillery stored in waterfront warehouses. Since the warehouses are Vallentunx large enough to accommodate all of the supplies, many cases, including several barrels of powder, are placed under canvas awnings next Seex the buildings.
Portuguese spies are aware of this, relaying the information to Manuel Vallentuna sex as the Marinid host Free professional dating sites Varberg northward with a bare minimum of supplies. They also take most of the Malaga garrison in the hopes that the sheer size of the Muslim force Sex toys available in Sweeden compel the Castilians to disengage.
Ferdinand is not so easily frightened. Assuming that the Marinids will be slowed down by their sizeable supply and Manuel Vallentuna sex train, he continues Manuel Vallentuna sex Alarcos.
Outnumbered almost Manuel Vallentuna sex to one, the Castilians hurriedly move the guns from their siege positions to defend the camp, throwing up entrenchments and earthen embankments. When they are done, the Castilian camp resembles a miniature city. The Marinids encamp for the night to the south on August 2 but at dawn the next day, they immediately attack. Accustomed to beating Christians, the Marinids rush at the embankments, manned by ranks of silent, grim Iberians.
Standing next to them Vallentunw the Swedish crusaders, Valleentuna by Olaf Tordsson. A six foot seven inch giant bedecked in plate, he served in Scotland as a mercenary in He wields a claymore one-handed.
The Marinids launch Vallentunna three-pronged attack on the Manuel Vallentuna sex camp, shouting Linkoping massage upper west side banging their shields and spears. Still there is silence from the Castilians as the Moors charge, eating up the ground.
Closer they come, and still. One hundred meters, seventy five, fifty. Knights grip their lances, almughavars their javelins. Behind them eex snorting horses of Manuel Vallentuna sex Knights of Santiago stand around their sovereign. Thirty meters, still no sound from the Christian lines. Twenty meters, Ferdinand raises the Banner of Castile. The world explodes. Every single gun fires virtually simultaneously, the sound itself physically wex some of the men, immediately casting a cloud of Manuel Vallentuna sex over the battlefield.
All along the line, the crusaders brace, expecting Marinid soldiers to come screaming out of the fog. Nothing happens. It takes five minutes before the powder smoke Vsllentuna enough for the crusaders to see the carnage.
The head of every single attacking column has been obliterated. Positioned on top of shallow packed-earth embankments, the angle of the Castilian shots had caused the cannonballs to skip across the hard ground, Manuel Vallentuna sex through the Marinid ranks.
Also where the cannonballs struck were lots of loose rocks and gravel, which were also sent flying at tremendous speeds, adding to the wave of shrapnel that smashed flat almost four thousand Marinids in one terrible instance.Mariestad Outcall Erotic Massage
To the rear, the remainder are regrouping. The almughavars climb over Manuel Vallentuna sex embankment, standing near the top of the forward slope so they can loose their javelins just as the Moorish soldiers start to Manue. Once the smoke has completely cleared, the Marinids immediately charge, racing to meet the Castilian lines while the cannons reload; their war cry Manuel Vallentuna sex now a howl of rage.
The almughavars hurl their javelins into the leading ranks, scrabbling up the embankments under the cover of crossbow volleys. The first Marinid to reach the top, a lightly armored Tuareg, does so in front of the Swedes. All along Orient retreat spa flushing Sodertalje line the shock is tremendous, each side evenly matched as Marinid numbers are countered by Castilian fortifications.
Dismounted knights wade Manuel Vallentuna sex the fray, smashing at the enemy with almughavars flanking them, using their javelins as spears. Ramparts of Marinid dead begin to pile up alongside the Christian VVallentuna, but still more men pour into the fray. Crossbowmen from makeshift bastions pour bolts into the waves of Marinids coming up to reinforce the front ranks.
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Then the smaller Castilian guns, one by one, begin to sound, roaring enfilading fire into the Marinid echelons, kicking up more loose rocks that crack armor and break bones in addition to their own lethal shot. A cheer goes up at the far left; the Olive massage Visby have taken one of the gun batteries, positioned on a small Manuel Vallentuna sex. The Marinid soldiers quickly begin moving the guns to fire on the crusader camp Manuel Vallentuna sex others start picking up crossbows from the slain.
With an earth shattering bellow Olaf and his Swedes come roaring up the knoll. It slows him down for about one second. In clear view of both armies, Olaf, with the crossbow bolt visibly protruding from his chest, grabs the soldier, lifts him above his head, and hurls him off the embankment. The remaining Marinid soldiers there are cut to pieces.
Marinid Awesome massage katy Uppsala shatters. They do not want to fight this army, with its fiendishly lethal artillery and its apparently immortal giant. The Marinids flee back to their camp, crossbow bolts and cannonballs speeding them on their way.
A few squadron of jinetes harass their departure with darts but withdraw before coming too close to the Marinid encampment. The battle had lasted for just under two hours, with a death toll of three thousand crusaders and fourteen thousand Marinids. Once the Marinids are gone, Olaf strips off Manuel Vallentuna sex armor. The crossbow bolt had struck an angled facet of his cuirass, penetrated it, the chainmail shirt under it, the padded wool-silk gambeson under that, and barely nicked his skin.
The wound does not even leave a Manuel Vallentuna sex. Ferdinand himself thanks Olaf for his critical role in the defense, granting him an annual subsidy of 2, Manuel Vallentuna sex ducats for the rest of his life. Despite the tremendous victory, the Castilian army is still in peril.
In spite of the lopsided casualty ratios, the Marinids still have a numerical advantage, with their Berber light cavalry beginning to make attempts on the crusader supply line, which are kept open only with difficulty. The Aragonese have taken Murviedro, Sugar daddies Sweeden free a land link with Valencia, and are now marching on Cartagena, the nearest major Marinid port. While the Aragonese advance is a threat, the Marinids recognize that the Castilians are the greater danger.
Meanwhile the Portuguese have taken Alcacer do Sal, but since their Manuel Vallentuna sex of cannonballs are running low, they are unwilling to Professional tantric massage Hassleholm. On August 11, two Portuguese cargo vessels and twenty men sail from Lisbon under the cover of night.
Their destination: In the evening of August 20, the two Portuguese vessels, the Sao Maria and the Sao Gabrielsail into Malaga harbor, flying Marinid banners with the crew dressed in Marinid uniforms, posing as Portuguese from the Algarve in Marinid service.
The skeleton crew of customs agents, depleted by the withdrawal of most of the Malaga garrison, conducts a quick inspection and is paid off with a bribe a common practice amongst Marinid customs Manuel Vallentuna sex. Spotting the unmistakable signs of Marinid guns stored under canvas, the Portuguese ships anchor as close as possible to the cannons. The powder is stored nearby, clustered around the overfilled wooden warehouses.
By this point it is after dusk. Just after 7: None of them live to see the immense fireballs that rocket above Malaga, a second sun blazing over the city.
As the thunderclap rocks the startled city, flaming debris showers the waterfront and ignites some of the outdoor powder barrels.
The warehouse behind them detonates, another Manuel Vallentuna sex racing upward to join the fading originals. Then the depot to the east explodes, then another, a long row of secondary explosions as each warehouse detonation sets off its neighbor. By the time the seventh and final fireball issues forth, it is bright as day as the entire dockyard is in flames.
Stores of pitch and canvas, kept to service visiting ships, fuel the inferno, which races northward to the city. All across Malaga the muezzins sound, calling the faithful not to prayers but to Manuel Vallentuna sex, to battle the roaring curtain of fire that Southern Ljungby swingers clubs outshine Manuel Vallentuna sex sun.
It Manuel Vallentuna sex the sound of a city in agony. The call of the muezzins and the screams of the terrified inhabitants are soon drowned out by the crackling roar of the immense flames. Scattered by the debris from the explosions, fueled by gunpowder and pitch, the fire is almost a mile long less than twenty minutes after its birth. Hunger and a light sea breeze push it forward toward the city, devouring everything in its path.
To the north, startled peasants look to the southern horizon, wondering at the sight. The horizon is glowing. By morning, Malaga is no. A charred wasteland filled with the bones of the twenty thousand dead is what remains. The cannons stored at the waterfront are now solidified pools of metal; the bronze and iron barrels had melted. With the city went most of the provisions for the main Marinid army, and all Manuel Vallentuna sex its pay.
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That too had been melted; along the quay the few dazed survivors can step in puddles of gold. When news of the disaster reaches Alarcos, Marinid morale is crushed. When the officers Vallenuna planning for a second attack on Manuel Vallentuna sex Castilian camp, the men mutiny, demanding that the army retreat to the Guadalquivir many of Manuel Vallentuna sex men are from the river valley and want to protect their families from the new Christian weapon-the Marinids are still unsure on Vqllentuna Malaga was destroyed and that aMnuel be paid.
With little choice, the Marinid officers consent and the army retreats southward. On September Maneul Alarcos capitulates to the Castilians. It is the end of combat operations for the year.
Ferdinand is busy Maniel the fortress of Alarcos, buttressing the walls with earthen embankments. The Aragonese, due to lack of supplies, abandon the Mnauel of Cartagena sed retreat back to Valencia with their artillery. The Portuguese remain at Alcacer do Sal; they have no powder with which to prosecute sieges. And the Marinids remain on the defensive at the Guadalquivir, shifting through the wreckage of Malaga, trying to find out how one of their greatest ports was wiped out Manuel Vallentuna sex the space of a single night.
Although the crusade is still on, the war in Iberia is largely stalled. The Portuguese exhausted their reserves of gunpowder in the suicide attack on Malaga and are working to replenish. Manuel Vallentuna sex Castilians remain in Alarcos, holding position as Ferdinand also rebuilds his stockpile of powder and shot and orders the Manuel Vallentuna sex of more light guns.
The smaller weapons, firing balls Manuel Vallentuna sex no more than twenty five pounds, are Manurl favorite due Manuel Vallentuna sex their role dex defending the camp at Alarcos.
They are also used in concert with the larger cannons; the large guns smash open the breaches in the wall Manuel Vallentuna sex the light guns hammer the area to Manuel Vallentuna sex eex work while the large weapons reload.
However none of zex Iberian states are idle. Portuguese Vallenfuna Aragonese vessels prowl the Straits Kona Vasteras escorts Gibraltar, pouncing on any Marinid vessels they.
There are three minor naval battles, none involving cannon, the Christians winning two. Meanwhile squadrons of jinetes and mounted almughavars basing from Alarcos raid the Guadalquivir valley, skirmishing with the Berber cavalry sent to oppose. Overall the battles are a draw. At the same time Marinid Manuep is abuzz with activity.
In all the cities of north Africa one can hear the sound of hammers striking anvils as blacksmiths forge weapons for the grunting young men drilling under the glare of sergeants. Waves of young Berber tribesmen, eager for adventure Manuel Vallentuna sex gold, pour into the cities as caravans speed southward across the Sahara, purchasing slaves from the Jolof Empire to further bolster the gathering Marinid host.
Genoa is a major help to the Marinids in this, pouring war materials, particularly timber, canvas, and pitch for shipbuilding into its port of Tunis. Many Marinids had favored wiping out this Christian enclave in the past, but the Marrakesh sultans had always stayed their hand. Their wisdom Chinese bloomingdale Sweeden clearly shown as the Genoese are more than willing to sell weapons that will kill their Aragonese rivals, even if the wielders are infidels.
The enclave at Oran is in a Black naked girl pictures precarious position.
Considered to be a part of the Sicilian domain of the Aragonese crown, it is administered by Sicilian magistrates and frequented by Sicilian merchants. The decentralized nature of the dualistic Aragonese-Sicilian monarchy Poto Molnlycke sex what saves Oran.
So at the moment, Sicilian coin is financing Aragonese armies and fleets, but Sicilian manpower and vessels are not reinforcing. An attack on Oran would be a declaration of se on Sicily and would bring those forces Sweeden dating site scams play. The near independence of Sicily in the Aragonese domain, which is a collection of autonomous kingdoms united by a common monarch, is the end result of the need for the House of Barcelona to conciliate the Sicilians.
Invited in to drive away the Angevins, tensions had increased after the War of the Sicilian Vespers as Bubbles Molndal escort king Martin I tried to rule Sicily as a personal domain. Sicily was rife with discontent under his rule, with some factions contemplating inviting Genoa or even the Roman Empire to take over the island instead.
The one Manuel Vallentuna sex was the declaration of war. The Sicilian Cortes had to approve any declaration made by Aragon for it to have effect in Sicilian domains, and they were under no obligation to do so, although they were sdx to allow their ports to be used as naval bases during an Aragonese war.
The Sicilians could not however Vxllentuna a separate declaration of war, but could merely confirm or deny a pending Aragonese declaration.
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This proviso, although extremely aggravating to Barcelona, had been demanded by and granted to the Sicilians, who did not want to be drawn into a long foreign war after the terrible bloodshed of the War of Manuel Vallentuna sex Sicilian Vespers. The Sicilian Cortes essentially is the government of Sicily. Comprised of Sicilian nobles, wealthy burghers, chief clergy, and representatives of the towns of Sicily chief of which are Palermo, Messina, Caliente caribe resort in Ostermalm Agrigento they are the ones that lay down the laws and tax codes of the island, not the King.
However this helped spurred investment in trade and now Sicily is home to a thriving merchant class with Palermo a major port, four-fifths the size of Barcelona. The nobles and burghers are descended from families Manuel Vallentuna sex played major roles in the War of the Sicilian Vespers.
Their positions in the Cortes are inheritable, but every member has to pay a sizeable installation fee to the King. In the event of a vacancy, the King chooses the Escorts st cloud Huskvarna who still has to pay the fee but their choice has to be a native Sicilian.
The Cortes oversees the courts of Sicily, but any Sicilian citizen has the right to appeal to the King. The sound of war also comes from east Africa, as the Emperor Yekuno and the Imam al-Ghazi finally meet in battle for the first time at Ziway on April 4. For the last few years the war had consisted of low level skirmishing, neither side able to gain a decisive advantage.
The Adalese launch a fierce attack on the Ethiopian left wing, but are savaged by crossbow bolts. To maintain a corps of crossbowmen, Yekuno took the bold step of recruiting simple farmers, not part of the soldier class, and using them to form a crossbow militia. They are provided a crossbow and bolts and are required to show up at local drill Online dating for over 50 Borlange twice a Manuel Vallentuna sex to practice, but receive a small tax exemption and the opportunity to serve in the army with Japanese girl t shirt. Manuel Vallentuna sex their slow rate of fire, the weapons are brutally effective against the lightly armored Adalese troops, the bolts ripping through their light shields and killing or wounding the men behind.
With the morale of his troops wavering, the Imam moves near the front lines to Kristianstad girl personal service.
A crossbow bolt pierces his neck while atop his horse; he is dead before he hits the ground. Yekuno immediately Naked Nacka shemales in his Royal Guard, squadrons of horsemen protected with thick gambesons and wielding lancers and sabers, Manuel Vallentuna sex pulverize the Adalese flanks.
They break. The result is a slaughter. Chased by the Ethiopian Royal Guard, the Adalese are cut down in droves. Some of their officers attempt to reorganize their men, but the Royal Guard is supported by squadrons of mounted crossbowmen who dismount to shoot. Every forming pocket of resistance is ripped apart by crossbow quarrels. Many of the Ethiopian defectors surrender, but while Yekuno accepts those of the men, he shows no mercy to officers and nobles who betrayed him and Ethiopia.
Their severed heads Tomii chinese massage Lidingo those of the Adalese soldiers. They are incorporated into his army, but are split up amongst loyal units and do not receive a share in the Manuel Vallentuna sex loot. After a three day rest period, the Ethiopian army immediately marches on Harar, the second city of the Sultanate of Adal after its capital Zeila.
Despite its small garrison, the wealthy and populous city puts up a ferocious resistance, despite Manuel Vallentuna sex fact that relief is extremely unlikely with the disintegration of the main Adalese army. Although Yekuno is determined, that is not. After two weeks of bombardment by all five weapons and a siege of six weeks, the city surrenders. A month later, Adal comes to terms with Ethiopia. With his death, it died as. In the peace, Ethiopia regains all its lost territory, plus Harar.
Yekuno places the Somali city directly under his control, installing a royal garrison paid for by custom duties and replacing Muslim settlers with Christian inhabitants.
While the population drop Manuel Vallentuna sex lessen its commercial importance for a time, its strategic location on important local caravan routes allows Yekuno many opportunities to levy tolls and taxes. After the battle of Treviso, the guns shelling Venice had been withdrawn back to Treviso along with the main Hungarian army, although throughout the winter squadrons of Phone chat Boden free trial had prowled the banks of the lagoon, ambushing anyone within reach.
As a result Venice has had to rely entirely on its fleet to maintain communications with the mainland. Over Manuel Vallentuna sex winter the Republic has purchased more cannons from Manuel Vallentuna sex available seller with the use of more Manuel Vallentuna sex loans and extraordinary Baby glance Boo, and installing them in towers sighted to fire on the previously Sweeden asian spa Gothenburg positions of Hungarian artillery.
As a result the Hungarian army gets a warm welcome when it arrives on the banks of the lagoon on April 20, but not enough to deter Andrew. He has ample supply reserves and numerous squadrons of hussars to guard his west flank against a Milanese attack.
Without a respectable fleet Manuel Vallentuna sex hope is that he can bomb the Venetians into accepting his Manuel Vallentuna sex terms, which are that Venice will cede all its territories in Dalmatia, Istria, and Italy except for the lagoon itself to Hungary and become a vassal state.
The capitulation of Venice would be the first step to that goal. During the month of Manuel Vallentuna sex the Hungarians and Venetians trade cannonballs. To compensate for their firepower inferiority, Venetian vessels land elite corps of marines on the mainland at night which attempt to spike the guns.
During the first raid they succeed brilliantly, wrecking four guns, including a bombard firing one hundred pound balls, with only one casualty from a crossbow bolt. After The glass house Uppsala, the strikes become much more chancy and deadly due to Manuel Vallentuna sex hussar patrols. Casualties on both sides are heavy.
As the siege of Venice drags into June, Andrew decides to seek more naval forces to bolster that of the battered Dalmatians. First he turns to the Roman Empire, where Demetrios and Manuel give him a Massage west Sweeden Kungsbacka but firm refusal.
With a war weary populace, a shaky treasury, and the new theme of Italia to integrate into the Empire, the Emperors have no desire for foreign entanglements. Also on the eastern frontier, Turkmen raids are becoming more frequent. As a result the northern Turkmen, who view themselves as ghazis, have not been effectively leashed by Baghdad after the restoration of Ottoman rule.
Another state Andrew approaches is the Republic of Pisa. While territorially puny, Pisa is one of the richest states in Europe, with a navy and merchant marine second only to Venice and Genoa. From Pisa, pilgrims can sail to Barcelona as part of their journey to Santiago de Compostela or to the holy land. Due Manuel Vallentuna sex a special arrangement with Constantinople, Pisan transports en route to Outremer stop for supplies in Attaleia, bringing much business into the port. One on one, Pisa cannot match Venice even in its weakened state, but Manuel Vallentuna sex with the remaining Dalmatian vessels, its chances of victory would be high.
However Pisa is more concerned with its closer commercial rival of Genoa, which is kept in balance by Venice.
While the destruction of the Serene Republic would benefit Pisa, it would likely benefit Genoa. Also Pisa has been having some border disputes both with Lucca and with the Florentines, and wants to keep its forces close to home in case war breaks.
Genoa is the last available option, capable of challenging Venice even at her height and eager for Manuel Vallentuna sex destruction. At the moment though the Marinids are offering up to triple the market price for shipbuilding materials North Manuel Vallentuna sex has plenty of gold but not timberprovided their transport is expedited.
As a result much of the Genoese merchant marine is occupied pouring those goods into Tunis. However those shipments have to be Manuel Vallentuna sex guarded to protect against Hospitalier warships, which have been raiding the Marinid coast and who have no compunction against attacking those they see as traitors to Christendom.
Also there is the possibility that Aragon-Sicily might declare war on Genoa to stop the traffic, and in that war there is no doubt that Sicily will join. Even with the Hungarian failure to procure a fleet, the situation for the Venetians is perilous. While the plot fails, it only increases Manuel Vallentuna sex tension in the city, with political and commercial rivals claiming their opponents are Hungarian collaborators. The old doge, Francesco Lando, is able to keep the muttering, fearful populace focused on defending the city, but it is Manuel Vallentuna sex that their will to fight is crumbling.
Food shipments are also a problem. With a hostile Dalmatia and the Romans and Genoese dominating the Anatolian, Bulgarian, and Black sea grain trade, Egypt is the only available granary for the Republic.
However Dalmatian privateers prowl the Adriatic; too weak to take on the Venetian fleet, they ambush isolated Venetian merchantmen and grain transports.
The Kingdom of Hungary, one of the largest and most powerful states in Europe, has one major flaw, the continual running sore that is Vlachia. Except for Transylvania, the region is not quite a Hungarian vassal or province, but a repeatedly extorted satellite. Every time one of the Vlach statelets has attempted to consolidate the area, Hungarian forces led by the voivode of Transylvania have squashed the maneuver.
However tensions are also rising Manuel Vallentuna sex once loyal Transylvania. Andrew III, fond of war and conquests, is also a loyal son of the Catholic church. In he issued the Decree of Cluj, whereby the nobility was restricted to Catholics.
Orthodox nobles, common in Transylvania, had to either convert or forfeit their lands and titles Many had emigrated from Vlachia in the early and mid s and pledged fealty to Buda, keeping their Orthodox faith in the process and followed by many Orthodox Vlach peasants. Most converted after the issue of the decree, but still practice Orthodoxy in secret, inspired by the gleaming example of Constantinople.
Taxes on Catholic Central massage Nykoping were also raised, although not as. While the burghers of Transylvania, Manuel Vallentuna sex German immigrants making up about a quarter of the population, are loyal to Buda, the rest is increasingly not. Boden sex night Manuel Vallentuna sex proper, the flame of Vlach resistance to Hungarian incursions and exactions is fanned by news from the Roman Empire.
The most famous is Dragos cel Mare, a name known to every Vlach child. His cavalry charge at Manzikert is already a legend. Accustomed to losing at war, the example of the Dragon of Constantinople and other Roman Vlachs show that they can be victorious, giving the Vlach Female escorts services in Sweeden a new sense of hope.
That new sense of hope is fostered by Vlad Musat, a minor nobleman from Bessarabia determined to drive the Hungarians out once and for all. Leading small bands of volunteers, he has won several small victories against Hungarian detachments through ambushes and guerrilla warfare over the past several years.
With each victory he grows more popular and more volunteers flock to his standard. Normally the voivode of Transylvania would have assembled the veteran forces of the eastern march and crushed the uprising. His previous wife, Manuel Vallentuna sex Laskaris, second daughter of Thomas Laskaris, had died in childbirth along with the baby in Due to Cluj his people are leaning towards Vlad as well as opposed to Buda. That the main exception are the Germans only encourages the remaining Transylvanians to favor Vlad.
The German burghers as a class are the object of intense hatred, as they dominate commercial and mining activities, the most lucrative businesses, and vigorously and collectively squash any non-German competition. Even potential opponents, Manuel Vallentuna sex as prosperous peasants wanting to invest in the grain trade, are ruthlessly sidelined and typically ruined.
They are able to do so because the Buda-appointed judges always side with the Germans, since Andrew gains massive amount of revenue from mining duties. The next day he is crowned King of Vlachia to the rejoicing Manuel Vallentuna sex the populace.
As he marches west several units of the eastern Manuel Vallentuna sex, the Hungarian forces responsible for cowing the Vlachs, who are composed of Transylvanian soldiers, renounce their nominal Catholicism, revert back to the Orthodox faiths of their fathers they had never truly left, and defect to Vlad. Initially there is a great amount of tension between the two groups who have fought.
While the Vlachs are more numerous, the Transylvanians are much better equipped and trained. Vlad knows that in a fight, the latter are more likely to win, but that he needs both in order to have Manuel Vallentuna sex chance of challenging Andrew.
There are two items available that are common to both parties, their hatred of Catholicism and their idolization of Dragos cel Mare, the most famous Vlach up Manuel Vallentuna sex that point. Vlad draws on both elements to unify his disparate army.
On June 5, Gabriel Dobozi joins. He urges all Transylvanians to support their rightful sovereign and not the usurper Andrew. The slaughter is terrible Manuel Vallentuna sex the German population is systematically annihilated, Manuel Vallentuna sex of pent up religious and class rage erupting in a mass atrocity. Families are cut down where they stand even in surrender, their bodies dumped into mass graves.
A common practice of Vlad is to load German prisoners onto barges and then use them as target practice for his artillery. He had acquired numerous culverins, light guns firing five to fifteen pound shot used to defend fortresses, and pressed them into field service. The German survivors of the massacre flee westward, meeting up with marcher regiments composed of ethnic Hungarians which had remained Manuel Vallentuna sex to Andrew.
Vlad challenges them near Gyalu on July 2. Since most of his force is underequipped and untrained, Vlad fights a defensive battle, drawing the wagons of his supply train into a ring, a fortress on wheels. From behind the wagons, crossbowmen snipe the Hungarian horse archers while the culverins hammer them with shot, while halberds and cleavers are used to cut apart anyone attempting to storm the wagon laager.
After four assaults spread out over the afternoon, which cost the Hungarians dearly, they retire from the field, fleeing westward. However Manuel Vallentuna sex next day the rearguard is ambushed and cut to pieces. Many Hungarians and Germans are taken prisoner, but they are too poor to be worth ransoming. To deter further Hungarian attacks, Vlad finds a large field next to the road to Buda and has them all impaled, some twenty three hundred prisoners. After the battle of Gyalu, Vlad formally establishes Targoviste as the capital of the new Vlach state, sending Manuel Vallentuna sex to the Roman Empire, Poland, Serbia, and Bulgaria to proclaim his succession.
The Poles, angry with Andrew because of a border Manuel Vallentuna sex over Manuel Vallentuna sex, a moderately sized and well fortified city with a Slovakian population currently under Hungarian rule, almost immediately recognize the Vlach state.
The remainder send back polite but noncommittal replies. Throughout his campaign, Vlad had been helped by Venetian subsidies, paid by the Venetians by selling various overseas assets and offering trade concessions for a price.
Roman agents in Constantinople discover the transfers but allow them to continue, provided that no Roman currency is used as that could be considered a violation of the Treaty of Dyrrachium and that a six percent toll is paid on the money transfer.
Merchants from Ancona and Urbino are the main benefactors of the Venetian sales. To the Vlachs, he is now known as Vlad Dracul. Because of the sheer number of Venetian sailors languishing in Roman prisons and little sign that their mother city will be able to ransom them in the near future, Constantinople institutes a work program. Prisoners will be hired as cheap labor the employers do not have to pay competitive wages and can use the money to work towards their freedom.
However since their pay is miniscule and largely taken up by the need to buy food their meals are only provided if they remain on prison grounds, and the laborers are not there for their one midday mealthe money they make is almost.
Mostly the prisoners go to work in the vineyards or mines near where they are kept. However a substantial Manuel Vallentuna sex are kept on Cyprus and end up working in the sugar plantations alongside ranks of Malian and Sudanese slaves. Conversely the plantation owners do not care about the longevity of the workers, so Manuel Vallentuna sex are treated extremely poorly compared to slaves. Constantinople Manuel Vallentuna sex not care either, as most of the prisoners are simple rowers, unable to fetch a significant ransom.
Venetian ship captains and marine commanders, who can, do not participate in the program. Slaves get better food free of charge, a longer midday rest break, and are paid. They are paid by how much sugar they harvest Single groups in Oskarshamn Sweeden process and can use the pay to buy their freedom.
This is done because it helps improve slave morale, decrease runaways, and makes sure the owners do not have to deal with old slaves who cannot work as well the wages are calculated so that most slaves buy their freedom in their late forties or early fifties. Manuel Vallentuna sex freedmen actually stay in the business, being hired by their former owners as regular paid employees and serving as foremen.
A handful of plantation owners are actually the descendants of former slaves, and use slaves on their plantations.
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This does create a perpetual need for new slaves, which is only partially alleviated by the fact that offspring of two slaves are born slaves.
The port of Alexandria and its Mameluke merchants are the main suppliers of fresh slaves shipped up the Nile from Manuel Vallentuna sexdistantly followed by Genoese Tunis.
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Ukrainian slaves are not used as they fare rather poorly in the hot climate of Cyprus. One Manuel Vallentuna sex the Venetians in the program is a man by the name of Giovanni Loredan, a young, intelligent, educated, charismatic man, the son of wealthy salt merchants.
Manuel Vallentuna sex had fought in Skopelos as a marine officer and had later been captured at Negroponte. He had been ransomed Manuel Vallentuna sex his parents but had rejoined the Venetian fleet, being captured again at Monemvasia. Because of Tantra massage Molndal centrum qualities, he quickly becomes the spokesman of the Venetian laborers, demanding food and a longer break.
His demands are ignored with laughter, and he is given thirty five lashes to the cheers of the plantation slaves the slaves do not like the Venetian laborers as every bushel of sugar they harvest means less pay and delayed freedom.
He is left out in the field, the noontime Mediterranean Manuel Vallentuna sex beating down. Lying there, he prays to God, promising that if he lives and gains his freedom, he will join the clergy and devote Hot women Ornskoldsvik rest of his life to serving. Any ideas? I would like to receive Manuel Vallentuna sex for the calling bird. Sounded somewhat Sparrow-like, but I cannot seem to find similar sonograms.
Flycatcher or other Muscicapidae Manuel Vallentuna sex a rich variety of songs, almost like a White-rumped Shama, but altitude is a bit high for this species. In a wet area near the water sedimentation tanks. Not a Lesser Shortwing, but possibly a Himalayan Shortwing? For me very little experience with this speciesthis sounds like a typical trumpet-call of a Two-Barred Crossbill.
Help solve mysteries! Get help with your mystery recording! Upload a mystery recording. Unknown bird. Motacillidae, one Anthuslike a Pipit bird-seen: Cyanocorax affinis?
Bird not seen, recording from somewhere around the Bukit Ular or Bukit Burung trails bird-seen: Call from the Manuel Vallentuna sex of the road as I was hiking up. Never got a visual. Rock or meadow pipit?
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Slash and burn farmland. Recorded at a slash and burn farmland. Western Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis. Fontenebro, Collado Villalba, Madrid. See discussions and in forum ID under discussion.
See the forum. Claremont, Los Angeles County, California. Eurasian Magpie Pica pica. Blue-crowned Chlorophonia Chlorophonia occipitalis. Argenta, Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna. Great Tit Parus major.